About Munger

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Munger District is one of the thirty-seven districts of Bihar state, India, and Munger town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Munger district is a part of Munger Division. Population: Total: 943583 Rural: 660418 Urban: 283165 Sub Divisions: Haveli Kharagpur,Munger, Tarapur Blocks: Haveli, Kharagpur, Dharhara, Munger, Jamalpur,Tarapur, Sangrampur, Bariarpur, Tetiabamber, Asarganj Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Lentils Industry: ITC cigarette plant, Gun Factory Rivers: Ganges, Mohane, Harohar, Kiul A Brief History: Munger, spelled Monghyr throughout British rule, is one of the most historic towns of Bihar. Known to be ruled by Karna, Its ruler Mir Kasim fought one of the last battles before East India Company captured the eastern India. The Fort built by him has three gates and Ganga on its four sides. Currently Munger hosts one of the biggest Yoga centers of the world ?Bihar School of Yoga? that offers postgraduate courses as ell. Visit http://lifepositive.com/Body/yoga/satyananda.asp The District of Monghyr has an area of 3922 sq. M. The Ganges divides it into two portions. The northern, intersected by the Burhi Gandak and Tiljuga, two important tributaries of the Ganges, is always liable to inundation during the rainy season, and is a rich, flat, wheat and rice country, supporting a large population. A considerable area, immediately bordering the banks of the great rivers, is devoted to permanent pasture. Immense herds of buffaloes are sent every hot season to graze on these marshy prairies; and the ghi, or clarified butter, made from their milk forms an important article of export to Calcutta. To the south of the Ganges the country is dry, much less fertile, and broken up by fragmentary ridges. rrigation is necessary throughout the section lying on the south of the Ganges. The population in 1901 was 2,068,804, showing an increase of 1.6% in the decade. The principal exports sent to Calcutta, both by rail nd by river, are oil-seeds, wheat, rice, indigo, grain and pulse, hides and tobacco; and the chief imports consist of European piece-goods, salt and sugar. The southern portion of the district is well provided with ailways. At Lakhisarai junction the arc and chord lines of the East Indian railway divide, and here also starts the branch to Gaya. At Jamalpur, which is the junction for Monghyr, are the engineering workshops of the company. In the early years of British rule Monghyr formed a part of Bhagalpur, and was not created a separate district till 1832. Agro-climatic zone.. With regard to agro-climatic zonal planning on the basis of agro-climatic features particularly soil type, temperature, rainfall, its variation and water resources, the district falls within the region, which can be geographically describe as South Bihar Alluvial plane. It is sub humid and has rainy season during summer subtropical climate ranging from sub-dry and sub-humid conditions. There are three distinct seasons in this zone viz., summer, monsoon and winter. Rainfall.. The rainfall under this zone is mainly influenced by the south-west monsoon which sets in the second week of June and continues up to end of September. Sometimes cyclonic rain also occurs. The average annual rainfall of this zone is 1078.7 mm. The rainfall distribution is marked seasonal in character. Greatly limiting water availability in certain times of the year and requiring disposal of excess water in some weeks during monsoon also occur. The average annual rainfall of Munger district is 1146.4mm (53year average), out of which 80% is received during monsoon season and the rest (more than5%)in summer season. In case of Munger district, the temporal variation annual rainfall was recorded at a maximum of 2181.6 mm in 1971 and a minimum of 481.6 mm in 1972 with annual coefficient of variation of 27.2%. July and August received maximum monthly rainfall in the district. The monthly co-efficient of variation of rainfall for monsoon from June to September was 68.5%, 44.3% and 51.8% respectively for Munger. Soil.. Soil of Munger district is grey to dark grey in color, medium to heavy in texture, slightly to moderately alkaline in reaction, cracks during summer (1) cm to more than 5 cm wide and more than 50 cm deep) becomes shallow with onset of monsoon, with clay content nearly 40% to 50% throughout the profile. Slicken side along with the wedge shaped structural aggregates absorb soil are found in level land or depression. Soil becomes bonding during summer and remains inundated rains. The clay minerals found are smectites followed by hydrous mica. The soil has a good fertility status. Diara land soils are light textured and well drained with free calcium carbonate (CaCO3) that varies between 3% to 8% but seldom exceeds 10% particularly no genetic low zone gives a coarse stratification micro relief, udic moisture regime clay. Minerals found are hydrous mica, smectite, kaolonite and chloride. The nature of sediments deposited in Diara land can be generally stated as those near the streams are coarser in texture i.e., sand which gradually becomes finer with distance a grade to heavy texture of clay in the central part of the meander, these being always layers of sand at varying department which generally do not go deeper than 40 cm to 60 cm of surface deposited as a result of changing course of the current. These Diaras are either: 1. Islands between river streams or 2. The place of the abandoned Dhar in the flood plains. DISTRICT PROFILE AT A GLANCE
1. Name of the District 2. Geographical Area (Sq Km) a) Number of Blocks/Talukas b) Number of Villages (inhabited) c) Number of Villages electrified Munger 1419.7 9 2395 201
3. Rainfall (mm) 4. Agro-climatic Region & Zone 5. Population (in 000’s) a) Male b) Female   Total c) Population density / Sq.Km. d) Population below Poverty line III A-South Bihar Alluvial Plan 1102 604662 530837 1135499 800 The BPL list is being updated
6. Classification of Workers a) Cultivators b) Out of (a) Small and Marginal farmers c) Agricultural Labourers d) Artisans e) Household Cottage Industries f) Allied Agro-activities g) Others workers ----- NA ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
7. Land Utilisation a) Geographical Area (in ha.) b) Net Sown Area (in ha.) c) Forest (in ha.) d) Current Fallow Land (in ha.) e) Land not available for cultivation (in ha.) f) Cropping intensity g) The Area brought under high yielding variety seed (in ha.) 1,36,359 1,36,359 60,308 32,375.9 6,292 11501 68,600
8. Size of Holdings a) Less than 1 ha. b) Between 1 ha. and 2 ha. c) Above 2 ha. Total No. ----- ----- ------ ----- Area (Ha) ----- ------ ----- -----
9. Irrigation (in ha.) a) Net Irrigated Area b) By canals c) By Tube wells d) By other Sources (Specify) Tanks Others 2514.5 0258 695.40 100 849.10
10. Consumption of organic and chemical fertilizers and pesticides (per ha) 11. Agriculture support facilities a) Seed / Fertiliser / Pesticide depots b) Rural Markets / Mandis c) Rural Godowns d) Cold Storages ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
12. Animal Husbandry (Nos.) Animal Survey 2003 a) Plough Animals-Bullocks b) Dairy Animals i) Cows (Cross Bred + Indigenous) ii) Buffaloes c) Sheep / Got d) Poultry 13. Predominant Economic activities prevalent in the district 14. Major food / commercial & Plantation / Horticulture crops ------ ------ ------ ------ ----- ----- ----- Paddy, wheat, Mango, Litchi, Mahua & Sesame